Timing Performance Analysis of the Deterministic Ethernet Enhancements Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) for Use in the Industrial Communication

  • Ethernet has become an established communication technology in industrial automation. This was possible thanks to the tremendous technological advances and enhancements of Ethernet such as increasing the link-speed, integrating the full-duplex transmission and the use of switches. However these enhancements were still not enough for certain high deterministic industrial applications such as motion control, which requires cycle time below one millisecond and jitter or delay deviation below one microsecond. To meet these high timing requirements, machine and plant manufacturers had to extend the standard Ethernet with real-time capability. As a result, vendor-specific and non-IEEE standard-compliant "Industrial Ethernet" (IE) solutions have emerged. The IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) Task Group specifies new IEEE-conformant functionalities and mechanisms to enable the determinism missing from Ethernet. Standard-compliant systems are very attractive to the industry because they guarantee investment security and sustainable solutions. TSN is considered therefore to be an opportunity to increase the performance of established Industrial-Ethernet systems and to move forward to Industry 4.0, which require standard mechanisms. The challenge remains, however, for the Industrial Ethernet organizations to combine their protocols with the TSN standards without running the risk of creating incompatible technologies. TSN specifies 9 standards and enhancements that handle multiple communication aspects. In this thesis, the evaluation of the use of TSN in industrial real-time communication is restricted to four deterministic standards: IEEE802.1AS-Rev, IEEE802.1Qbu IEEE802.3br and IEEE802.1Qbv. The specification of these TSN sub-standards was finished at an early research stage of the thesis and hardware prototypes were available. Integrating TSN into the Industrial-Ethernet protocols is considered a substantial strategical challenge for the industry. The benefits, limits and risks are too complex to estimate without a thorough investigation. The large number of Standard enhancements makes it hard to select the required/appropriate functionalities. In order to cover all real-time classes in the automation [9], four established Industrial-Ethernet protocols have been selected for evaluation and combination with TSN as well as other performance relevant communication features. The objectives of this thesis are to (1) Provide theoretical, simulation and experimental evaluation-methodologies for the timing performance analysis of the deterministic TSN-standards mentioned above. Multiple test-plans are specified to evaluate the performance and compatibility of early version TSN-prototypes from different providers. (2) Investigate multiple approaches and deduce migration strategies to integrate these features into the established Industrial-Ethernet protocols: Sercos III, Profinet IRT, Profinet RT and Ethernet/IP. A scenario of coexistence of time-critical traffic with other traffic in a TSN-network proves that the timing performance for highly deterministic applications, e.g. motion-control, can only be guaranteed by the TSN scheduling algorithm IEEE802.1Qbv. Based on a requirements survey of highly deterministic industrial applications, multiple network scenarios and experiments are presented. The results are summarized into two case studies. The first case study shows that TSN alone is not enough to meet these requirements. The second case study investigates the benefits of additional mechanisms (Gigabit link-speed, minimum cycle time modeling, frame forwarding mechanisms, frame structure, topology migration, etc.) in combination with the TSN features. An implementation prototype of the proposed system and a simulation case study are used for the evaluation of the approach. The prototype is used for the evaluation and validation of the simulation model. Due to given scalability constraints of the prototype (no cut-through functionalities, limited number of TSN-prototypes, etc…), a realistic simulation model, using the network simulation tool OMNEST / OMNeT++, is conducted. The obtained evaluation results show that a minimum cycle time ≤1 ms and a maximum jitter ≤1 μs can be achieved with the presented approaches.

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Author:Seifeddine Nsaibi
URN (permanent link):urn:nbn:de:hbz:386-kluedo-59955
Advisor:Hans-Dieter Schotten
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language of publication:English
Publication Date:2020/06/22
Year of Publication:2020
Publishing Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Granting Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Acceptance Date of the Thesis:2020/05/20
Date of the Publication (Server):2020/06/26
Number of page:172
Faculties / Organisational entities:Fachbereich Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik
DDC-Cassification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 621.3 Elektrontechnik, Elektronik
Licence (German):Creative Commons 4.0 - Namensnennung (CC BY 4.0)