Modeling and validation of a stochastic drag for fibers in turbulent flows
- The understanding of the motion of long slender elastic fibers in turbulent flows is of great interest to research, development and production in technical textiles manufacturing. The fiber dynamics depend on the drag forces that are imposed on the fiber by the fluid. Their computation requires in principle a coupling of fiber and flow with no-slip interface conditions. However, theneeded high resolution and adaptive grid refinement make the direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional fluid-solid-problem for slender fibers and turbulent flows not only extremely costly and complex, but also still impossible for practically relevant applications. Embedded in a slender body theory, an aerodynamic force concept for a general drag model was therefore derived on basis of a stochastic k-o; description for a turbulent flow field in . The turbulence effects on the fiber dynamics were modeled by a correlated random Gaussian force and its asymptotic limit on a macroscopic fiber scale by Gaussian white noise with flow-dependent amplitude. The concept was numerically studied under the conditions of a melt-spinning process for nonwoven materials in  – for the specific choice of a non-linear Taylor drag model. Taylor  suggested the heuristic model for high Reynolds number flows, Re in [20, 3 · 105], around inclined slender objects under an angle of attack of alpha in (pi/36, pi/2] between flow and object tangent. Since the Reynolds number is considered with respect to the relative velocity between flow and fiber, the numerical results lackaccuracy evidently for small Re that occur in cases of flexible light fibers moving occasionally with the flow velocity. In such a regime (Re << 1), linear Stokes drag forces were successfully applied for the prediction of small particles immersed in turbulent flows, see e.g. [25, 26, 32, 39], a modifiedStokes force taking also into account the particle oscillations was presented in . The linear drag relation was also conferred to longer filaments by imposing free-draining assumptions [29, 8]. Apart from this, the Taylor drag suffers from its non-applicability to tangential incident flow situations (alpha = 0) that often occur in fiber and nonwoven production processes.